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Dengue is of great concern in various parts of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical countries where the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are present. The transmission of this virus to humans, by what is known as horizontal transmission, occurs through the bite of infected females of one or other of the two mosquito species. Furthermore, an infected female or male parent, by what is known as vertical transmission, can transfer this arbovirus to some part of their offspring. Considering that vertical transmission may represent an important strategy for maintaining the circulation of arboviruses in nature, the verification of this phenomenon worldwide is extremely important and necessary to better understand its dynamic. In the present study, we conducted a literature review of the presence of natural vertical transmission of dengue virus in Ae.

In Nueva Leon, a pool of four females of Ae. The authors could not, however, determine the serotype [ 50 ]. A sketch-map of countries providing confirmation of this event in the Americas and Asia is presented in Fig. Confirmed cases of vertical transmission of DENV worldwide.

Zika is caused by a virus of the genus Flavivirus family Flaviviridae [ 52 ]. It was first isolated in a Rhesus monkey from the Zika Forest, Uganda, in during a yellow fever survey, and serological evidence of Zika virus ZIKV circulation in humans were reported in countries of East and West Africa as well [ 53 ].

Inthe first out-of-area epidemic occurred on the island of Yap, Micronesia, in the Pacific Ocean, and subsequently in Octoberthe virus reached French Polynesia, Oceania, where it caused a major outbreak of the disease [ 53 ]. The first country in the Americas to register autochthonous human cases of Zika and to confirm the circulation of the virus was Brazil, in earlyin the states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Norte [ 54 56 ].

Later, inchikungunya epidemics were recorded in India and some southeastern Asiatic countries, and inautochthonous cases of this arbovirus were reported in Italy [ 62 ].

At the end ofCHIKV was isolated for the first time in the Americas, in the Caribbean region, and bySouth American countries such as French Guiana, Venezuela, Suriname and Brazil had already recorded autochthonous cases of chikungunya [ 64 ].

Using the same methodology and exclusion criteria described above, we obtained two articles on natural vertical transmission of CHIKV and two on natural vertical transmission of ZIKV, totaling four articles. No relationship among endemism and vertical transmission was found for ZIKV or CHIKV, probably due to their recent introduction into the Americas and the low number of publications available for analysis. The confirmed presence of the natural vertical transmission of DENV in endemic countries may be related to a possible correlation between endemism and vertical transmission, suggesting that this phenomenon may represent an important mechanism for the establishment of endemicity [ 29 ].

This observation can also be explained by the greater interest of the scientific community towards a better understanding of dynamic transmission in countries that suffer from several arboviruses.

In spite of some African countries being considered endemic for dengue, there is a lack of publications on this subject on that continent, which does not necessarily mean that natural vertical transmission does not occur in those countries and highlights the importance of conducting studies in the area. Parallel to this, the low number of studies on natural vertical transmission of CHIKV and ZIKV in the world may be explained by the recent entry of these arboviruses into the countries affected, causing severe epidemics and complications in the majority of them, especially in areas with previous circulation of DENV [ 69 ].

Nevertheless, the detection of this phenomenon in the Mexican, Indian and Brazilian populations of Ae. The confirmation of the natural vertical transmission in this mosquito species is, therefore, of great importance as it demonstrates the circulation of these viruses in these populations and alerts to the possibility of a new vector acting in the transmission dynamics of these arboviruses.

This research was financially supported by: Grant No. TNL-C designed the study. VHF-L conceived and analyzed the data. All authors cooperated in drafting the manuscript, providing critical input regarding the findings.

Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Victor Henrique Ferreira-de-Lima, Email: rb. Tamara Nunes Lima-Camara, Email: rb. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Parasit Vectors v.

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Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Oct 2; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Dengue is of great concern in various parts of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical countries where the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are present.

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Vertical transmission worldwide Searches conducted in the MEDLINE, SciELO and Lilacs databases using the combination of the pre-defined terms provided 96 articles, but only 32 studies were considered relevant in the light of the exclusion criteria.

Conclusions The confirmed presence of the natural vertical transmission of DENV in endemic countries may be related to a possible correlation between endemism and vertical transmission, suggesting that this phenomenon may represent an important mechanism for the establishment of endemicity [ 29 ].

Funding This research was financially supported by: Grant No. Availability of data and materials Not applicable.

Notes Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References 1. Westaway EG, Blok J. Taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of flaviviruses. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Wallingford: CAB International; Gubler D.

Clin Microbiol Rev. Dengue viral infections. Indian J Dermatol. Tauil PL. Critical aspects of dengue control in Brazil. The global distribution and burden of dengue.

Inf Epidemiol Sus. Transmission of major arboviruses in Brazil: the role of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus vectors. Rijeka: InTech; Clements AN.

Arboviruses: Characteristics and concepts. In: Clements AN, editor. The biology of mosquitoes: Transmission of viruses and interactions with bacteria. Rosen L. Mechanism of vertical transmission of the dengue virus in mosquitoes. Higgs S, Beaty B. Natural cycles of vector-borne pathogens. In: Marquardt WC, editor. Biology of disease vectors. Determinants of arbovirus vertical transmission in mosquitoes. PLoS Pathog. Shroyer DA. Vertical Maintenance of dengue-1 virus in sequential generations of Aedes albopictus.

J Am Mosq Control Assoc. Persistence of dengue-3 virus through transovarial transmission passage in successive generations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. Transovarial transmission of dengue 2 virus by Aedes aegypti in nature. Failure to detect natural transovarial transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Diptera: Culicidae J Med Entomol. A Survey of dengue viral infection in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from re-epidemic areas in the north of Thailand using nucleic acid sequence based amplification assay.

Prospective field study of transovarial dengue-virus transmission by two different forms of Aedes aegypti in an urban area of Bangkok, Thailand. J Vector Ecol. Entomological investigations during outbreaks of dengue fever in certain villages in Maharashtra state.

Indian J Med Res. Natural vertical transmission of dengue virus in Aedes albopictus Diptera: Culicidae in Kerala, a southern Indian state.

Jpn J Infect Dis. Angel B, Joshi V. Distribution and seasonality of vertically transmitted dengue viruses in Aedes mosquitoes in arid and semi-arid areas of Rajasthan, India. J Vector Borne Dis. Natural vertical transmission of dengue virus in peak summer collections of Aedes aegypti Diptera: Culicidae from urban areas of Jaipur Rajasthan and Delhi. J Commun Dis. Detection of dengue virus from field Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus adults and larvae.

Lee HL, Rohani A. Transovarial transmission of dengue in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in relation to dengue outbreak in an urban area in Malaysia. Dengue Bulletin. J Med Entomol. Vertical transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti collected in Surabaya, Indonesia, during Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines. Screening of dengue virus in field-caught Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Diptera: Culicidae by one-step SYBR green-based reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay during in southern Taiwan.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.

Gall bladder carcinoma: Aggressive malignancy with protean loco-regional and distant spread

Natural transovarial transmission of dengue 4 virus in Aedes aegypti in Trinidad. Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes aegypti in Bolivia.

Vertical Transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegyptiPeru.

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