Berber Wedding in MoroccoBerbers constitute the populations of Morocco , Algeria , Tunisia , Libya , Mauritania , northern Mali , northern Niger , and a small part of western Egypt. Historically, Berber nations spoke the Berber language , which is a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. There are about 32 million Berbers in North Africa who still speak the Berber language. The majority of North Africa's population west of Egypt is believed to be Berber in ethnic origin, although due to Arabization and Islamization some ethnic Berbers identify as Arabized Berbers. The majority of Berbers are currently Sunni Muslim. Although recently some Berbers have openly converted to Shia Islam , Christianity and atheism. The Berber identity is usually wider than language and ethnicity and encompasses the entire history and geography of North Africa.
Dating is very different there. I expected affection and normal dating. That did not happen. It made it very hard for me being American and never having had a muslim bf before. It is an adjustment and even harder not to involve feelings. I fell in love with him and he me…but we have not gotten his parents blessings yet. I wish I had read this post before going to Morocco for the first-time for a wedding.
In America, we are very publicly dating. In Morocco, I felt like we were almost strangers, but clearly not strangers since I had traveled for two days across an ocean to be at an important event for him.
This was the biggest culture shock for me. Not speaking Darija or French were rough, but not as difficult as the mental acrobatics involved in understanding our public and private relationship.
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Email Address. Comments I am dating a Moroccan man and just came back from morocco after visiting him for 2 weeks. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Comment Name Email Website. The exonym was later adopted by the Greeks, with a similar connotation. Among its oldest written attestations, Berber appears as an ethnonym in the 1st century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Despite these early manuscripts, certain modern scholars have argued that the term only emerged around AD in the writings of Arab genealogists,  with Maurice Lenoir positing an 8th or 9th century date of appearance.
The Berbers are the Mauri cited by the Chronicle of during the Umayyad conquest of Hispaniato become since the 11th century the catch-all term Moros in Spanish; Moors in English on the charters and chronicles of the expanding Christian Iberian kingdoms to refer to the Andalusithe north Africans, and the Muslims overall. For the historian Abraham Isaac Laredo  the name Amazigh could be derived from the name of the ancestor Mezeg which is the translation of biblical ancestor Dedan son of Sheba in the Targum.
According to Leo AfricanusAmazigh meant "free man", though this has been disputed, because there is no root of M-Z-Gh meaning "free" in modern Berber languages. This dispute, however, is based on a lack of understanding of the Berber language [ neutrality is disputed ] as "Am-" is a prefix meaning "a man, one who is […]" Therefore, the root required to verify this endonym would be a zigh"free", which however is also missing from Tamazight 's lexicon, but may be related to the well attested aze "strong", Tizzit "bravery", or jeghegh "to be brave, to be courageous".
Further, it also has a cognate in the Tuareg word Amajeghmeaning "noble". The Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines mentioned various tribes with similar names living in Greater "Libya" North Africa in the areas where Berbers were later found. Later tribal names differ from the classical sources, but are probably still related to the modern Amazigh.
The Meshwesh tribe among them represents the first thus identified from the field. Scholars believe it would be the same tribe called a few centuries afterwards in Greek as Mazyes by Hektaios and as Maxyes by Herodotuswhile it was called after that Mazaces and Mazax in Latin sources, and related to the later Massylii and Masaesyli.
All those names are similar and perhaps foreign renditions of the name used by the Berbers in general for themselves, Imazighen. The Maghreb region in northwestern Africa is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers from at least 10, BC. Other rock art has been observed in Tadrart Acacus in the Libyan desert. A Neolithic society, marked by domestication and subsistence agriculturedeveloped in the Saharan and Mediterranean region the Maghreb of northern Africa between and BC.
This type of life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer cave paintings of southeastern Algeria, predominated in the Maghreb until the classical period. Prehistoric Tifinagh scripts were also found in the Oran region. In historical times, the Berbers expanded south into the Sahara displacing earlier populations such as the Azer and Bafour.
Much of Berber culture is still celebrated among the cultural elite in Morocco and Algeria. The Ottomans did penetrate the Kabylie area, and to places the Phoenicians never penetrated, far beyond the coast, where Turkish influence can be seen in food, clothes and music. These areas have been affected by some of the many invasions of North Africa, most recently that of the French. Around BC, the populations of North Africa were primarily descended from the makers of the Iberomaurusian and Capsian cultures, with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic Revolution.
Most of these populations belong to the E1b1b paternal haplogroup, with Berber speakers having among the highest frequencies of this lineage.
This Maghrebi element peaks among Tunisian Berbers. All of the specimens belonged to maternal clades associated with either North Africa or the northern and southern Mediterranean littoral, indicating gene flow between these areas since the Epipaleolithic. Human fossils excavated at the Ifri n'Amr or Moussa site in Morocco have been radiocarbon-dated to the Early Neolithic period, ca.
Ancient DNA analysis of these specimens indicates that they carried paternal haplotypes related to the E1b1b1b1a E-M81 subclade and the maternal haplogroups U6a and M1all of which are frequent among present-day communities in the Maghreb. These ancient individuals also bore an autochthonous Maghrebi genomic component that peaks among modern Berbers, indicating that they were ancestral to populations in the area.
Additionally, fossils excavated at the Kelif el Boroud site near Rabat were found to carry the broadly-distributed paternal haplogroup T-M as well as the maternal haplogroups K1T2 and X2the latter of which were common mtDNA lineages in Neolithic Europe and Anatolia.
These ancient individuals likewise bore the Berber-associated Maghrebi genomic component. This altogether indicates that the Late Neolithic Kelif el Boroud inhabitants were ancestral to contemporary populations in the area, but also likely experienced gene flow from Europe.
The grand tribal identities of Berber antiquity then often known as ancient Libyans  were said to be three roughly, from west to east : the Maurithe Numidians near Carthageand the Gaetulians. The Mauri inhabited the far west ancient Mauretanianow Morocco and central Algeria. The Numidians occupied the regions between the Mauri and the city-state of Carthage. Both the Numidians and the Mauri had significant sedentary populations living in villages, and their peoples both tilled the land and tended herds.
The Gaetulians were less settled, with predominantly pastoral elements, and lived in the near south on the margins of the Sahara. For their part, the Phoenicians Canaanites came from the perhaps most advanced multicultural sphere then existing, the western coast of the Fertile Crescent.
Accordingly, the material culture of Phoenicia was likely more functional and efficient, and their knowledge more explanatory, than that of the early Berbers.
A normally well-off Berber family that owns a car and house will include gold. Berber women in Morocco. – A date is chosen for the marriage ceremony.
Hence, the interactions between Berbers and Phoenicians were often asymmetrical. The Phoenicians worked to keep their cultural cohesion and ethnic solidarity, and continuously refreshed their close connection with Tyrethe mother city. The earliest Phoenician landing stations located on the coasts were probably meant merely to resupply and service ships bound for the lucrative metals trade with the Iberian peninsula.
As in Tunisia these centres were trading hubs, and later offered support for resource development such as olive oil at Volubilis and Tyrian purple dye at Mogador.
For their part, most Berbers maintained their independence as farmers or semi-pastorals although, due to the exemplar of Carthage, their organized politics increased in scope and acquired sophistication. In fact for a time their numerical and military superiority the best horse riders of that time enabled some Berber kingdoms to impose a tribute payable by Carthage, a condition that continued into the 5th century BC.
Correspondingly, in early Carthage careful attention was given to securing the most favorable treaties with the Berber chieftains, "which included intermarriage between them and the Punic aristocracy. Her refusal to wed the Mauritani chieftain Hiarbus might be indicative of the complexity of the politics involved.
Eventually the Phoenician trading stations would evolve into permanent settlements, and later into small towns, which would presumably require a wide variety of goods as well as sources of food, which could be satisfied in trade with the Berbers. Yet here too, the Phoenicians probably would be drawn into organizing and directing such local trade, and also into managing agricultural production. In the 5th century BC, Carthage expanded its territory, acquiring Cape Bon and the fertile Wadi Majardah later establishing its control over productive farm lands within several hundred kilometers.
This social-cultural interaction in early Carthage has been summarily described:. Lack of contemporary written records make the drawing of conclusions here uncertain, which can only be based on inference and reasonable conjecture about matters of social nuance. Yet it appears that the Phoenicians generally did not interact with the Berbers as economic equals, but employed their agricultural labor, and their household services, whether by hire or indenture; many became sharecroppers.
In there was a great uprising. The Carthaginians were obliged to withdraw within their walls and were besieged. The Berbers had become involuntary 'hosts' to the settlers from the east, and obliged to accept the Punic dominance of Carthage for many centuries. The Berbers belonged to the lower social class when in Punic society [ citation needed ]. Nonetheless, therein they persisted largely unassimilated [ citation needed ]as a separate, submerged entity, as a culture of mostly passive urban and rural poor within the civil structures created by Punic rule.
While benefiting from Punic material culture and political-military institutions, these peripheral Berbers also called Libyans maintained their own identity, culture and traditions, continued to develop their own agricultural and village skills, while living with the newcomers from the east in an asymmetric symbiosis.
As the centuries passed there naturally grew a Punic society of Phoenician-descent but born in Africa, called Libyphoenicians. This term later came to be applied also to Berbers acculturated to urban Phoenician culture. There would develop recognized niches in which Berbers had proven their utility. For example, the Punic state began to field Berber Numidian cavalry under their commanders on a regular basis. The Berbers eventually were required to provide soldiers at first "unlikely" paid "except in booty"which by the fourth century BC became "the largest single element in the Carthaginian army".
Yet in times of stress at Carthage, when a foreign force might be pushing against the city-state, some Berbers would see it as an opportunity to advance their interests, given their otherwise low status in Punic society [ citation needed ]. The Romans too read these cues, so that they cultivated their Berber alliances and, subsequently, favored the Berbers who advanced their interests following the Roman victory. Carthage was faulted by her ancient rivals for the "harsh treatment of her subjects" as well as for "greed and cruelty".
The normal exaction taken by Carthage was likely "an extremely burdonsome" one-quarter. Hence the frequent Berber insurrections. Moderns fault Carthage for failure "to bind her subjects to herself, as Rome did" her Italians. Yet Rome and the Italians held far more in common perhaps than did Carthage and the Berbers.
Nonetheless, a modern criticism tells us that the Carthaginians "did themselves a disservice" by failing to promote the common, shared quality of "life in a properly organized city" that inspires loyalty, particularly with regard to the Berbers.
The Punic relationship with the majority Berbers continued throughout the life of Carthage. The unequal development of material culture and social organization perhaps fated the relationship to be an uneasy one. A long-term cause of Punic instability, there was no melding of the peoples. It remained a source of stress and a point of weakness for Carthage. Yet there were degrees of convergence on several particulars, discoveries of mutual advantage, occasions of friendship, and family.
The Berbers enter historicity gradually during the Roman era. Byzantine authors mention the Mazikes Amazigh as tribal people raiding the monasteries of Cyrenaica. Roman era Cyrenaica became a center of early Christianity. Some pre-Islamic Berbers were Christians  there is a strong correlation between membership of the Donatist doctrine and being Berber, ascribed to its matching their culture as well as their alienation from the dominant Roman culture of the Catholic church some perhaps Jewishand some adhered to their traditional polytheist religion.
The Roman era authors Apuleius and St. Augustine were born in Numidia. It later alternated between being a Roman province and being a Roman client state. The polity was located on the eastern border of modern Algeria, bordered by the Roman province of Mauretania in modern Algeria and Morocco to the west, the Roman province of Africa modern Tunisia to the east, the Mediterranean to the north, and the Sahara Desert to the south. Its people were the Numidians. The Numidians were conceived of as two great groups: the Massylii in eastern Numidia, and the Masaesyli in the west.
During the first part of the Second Punic Warthe eastern Massylii under their king Gala were allied with Carthage, while the western Masaesyli under king Syphax were allied with Rome.
In BC, the new king of the eastern Massylii, Masinissaallied himself with Rome, and Syphax of the Masaesyli switched his allegiance to the Carthaginian side. At the end of the war, the victorious Romans gave all of Numidia to Masinissa of the Massylii.
At the time of his death in BC, Masinissa's territory extended from Mauretania to the boundary of the Carthaginian territory, and also south-east as far as Cyrenaicaso that Numidia entirely surrounded Carthage AppianPunicaexcept towards the sea.
Masinissa was succeeded by his son Micipsa. When Micipsa died in BC, he was succeeded jointly by his two sons Hiempsal I and Adherbal and Masinissa's illegitimate grandson, Jugurthaof Berber origin, who was very popular among the Numidians. Hiempsal and Jugurtha quarreled immediately after the death of Micipsa. Jugurtha had Hiempsal killed, which led to open war with Adherbal. After Jugurtha defeated him in open battle, Adherbal fled to Rome for help.
The Roman officials, allegedly due to bribes but perhaps more likely because of a desire to quickly end conflict in a profitable client kingdom, settled the fight by dividing Numidia into two parts. Jugurtha was assigned the western half.
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However, soon after conflict broke out again, leading to the Jugurthine War between Rome and Numidia. It became a client state of the Roman empire in 33 BC, then a full Roman province after the death of its last king Ptolemy of Mauretania in AD, a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty. The process of Arabization only became a major factor with the arrival of the Banu Hilala tribe sent by the Fatimids of Egypt to punish the Berber Zirid dynasty for having abandoned Shiism.
The Banu Hilal reduced the Zirids to a few coastal towns and took over much of the plains; their influx was a major factor in the Arabization of the region and in the spread of nomadism in areas where agriculture had previously been dominant.
Besides the Arabian influence, North African population also saw an influx via the Barbary Slave Trade of European peoples, with some estimates placing the number of European slaves brought to North Africa during the Ottoman period as high as 1. Each region of the Maghreb contained several tribes e.
All these tribes had independence and territorial hegemony. The most notable are the Zirids Ifriqiya—the Hammadids Western Ifriqiya, —the Almoravid dynasty Morocco and al-Andalus—the Almohads Morocco and al-Andalus, —the Hafsids Ifriqiya, —the Zianids Tlemcen—the Marinids Morocco, — and the Wattasids Morocco, — They belong to a powerful, formidable, brave and numerous people; a true people like so many others the world has seen — like the Arabs, the Persians, the Greeks and the Romans.
The men who belong to this family of peoples have inhabited the Maghreb since the beginning. Unlike the conquests of previous religions and cultures, the coming of Islam, which was spread by Arabswas to have extensive and long-lasting effects on the Maghreb. The new faith, in its various forms, would penetrate nearly all segments of Berber society, bringing with it armies, learned men, and fervent mystics, and in large part replacing tribal practices and loyalties with new social norms and political idioms.
Nonetheless, the Islamization and Arabization of the region was a complicated and lengthy process. Whereas nomadic Berbers were quick to convert and assist the Arab conquerors, it was not until the twelfth century, under the Almohad Dynasty, that the Christian, Jewish, and animist communities of the Maghreb became marginalized.
Jews persisted within Northern Africa as dhimmisprotected peoples, under Islamic law. They continued to occupy prominent economic and political roles within the Maghreb. The first Arabian military expeditions into the Maghreb, between andresulted in the spread of Islam. These early forays from a base in Egypt occurred under local initiative rather than under orders from the central caliphate. But when the seat of the caliphate moved from Medina to Damascus, the Umayyads a Muslim dynasty ruling from to recognized that the strategic necessity of dominating the Mediterranean dictated a concerted military effort on the North African front.
Intherefore, an Arab army under Uqba ibn Nafi established the town of Qayrawan about kilometres south of modern Tunis and used it as a base for further operations. Abu al-Muhajir DinarUqba's successor, pushed westward into Algeria and eventually worked out a modus vivendi with Kusailathe ruler of an extensive confederation of Christian Berbers. Kusaila, who had been based in Tlemcenbecame a Muslim and moved his headquarters to Takirwan, near Al Qayrawan. This harmony was short-lived; Arabian and Berber forces controlled the region in turn until Governors appointed by the Umayyad caliphs ruled from Kairouancapital of the new wilaya province of Ifriqiya, which covered Tripolitania the western part of modern LibyaTunisia, and eastern Algeria.
The spread of Islam among the Berbers did not guarantee their support for the Arab-dominated caliphate due to the discriminatory attitude of the Arabs. The ruling Arabs alienated the Berbers by taxing them heavily; treating converts as second-class Muslims; and, worst of all, by enslaving them. As a result, widespread opposition took the form of open revolt in —40 under the banner of Ibadin Islam. The Ibadin had been fighting Umayyad rule in the East, and many Berbers were attracted by the sect's seemingly egalitarian precepts.
After the revolt, Ibadin established a number of theocratic tribal kingdoms, most of which had short and troubled histories. But others, like Sijilmasa and Tlemcenwhich straddled the principal trade routes, proved more viable and prospered. Inthe Abbasids, who succeeded the Umayyads as Muslim rulers, moved the caliphate to Baghdad and reestablished caliphal authority in Ifriqiya, appointing Ibrahim ibn al Aghlab as governor in Kairouan.
Though nominally serving at the caliph's pleasure, Al Aghlab and his successors, the Aghlabidsruled independently untilpresiding over a court that became a center for learning and culture.
The rulers of the Rustamid imamate —each an Ibadi imamwere elected by leading citizens.
The imams gained a reputation for honesty, piety, and justice. The court at Tahert was noted for its support of scholarship in mathematics, astronomy, astrology, theology, and law. The Rustamid imams failed, by choice or by neglect, to organize a reliable standing army.
This important factor, accompanied by the dynasty's eventual collapse into decadence, opened the way for Tahert's demise under the assault of the Fatimids.
The Fatimids established the Tunisian city of Mahdia and made it their capital city, before conquering Egypt, and building the city of Cairo in Roger Collins suggests that if the forces that invaded the Iberian peninsula were predominantly Berber, it is because there were insufficient Arab forces in Africa to maintain control of Africa and attack Iberia at the same time.
In addition, Collins argues that Berber social organization made it possible for the Arabs to recruit entire tribal units into their armies, making the defeated Berbers excellent military auxiliaries. Governor As-Samh distributed land to the conquering forces, apparently by tribe, though it is difficult to determine from the few historical sources available.
Berbers were positioned in many of the most mountainous regions of Spain, such as the mountains of Granada, the Pyrenees, and the mountains of Cantabria and Galicia. Roger Collins suggests this may be because some Berbers were familiar with mountain terrain, whereas the Arabs were not.
This revolt challenged As-Samh's plans to settle Berbers in the Galician and Cantabrian mountains, and by the middle of the eighth century it seems there was no more Berber presence in Galicia. Many Berbers were settled in what were then the frontier lands near ToledoTalaveraand Merida.
Roger Collins cites the work of Pierre Guichard to argue that Berber groups in Iberia retained their own distinctive social organization. Inthe eastern Pyrenees were under the control of Berber forces garrisoned in the major towns under the command of Munnuza. Munnuza attempted to lead a Berber uprising against the Arabs in Spain, citing mistreatment of Berbers by Arabic judges in north Africa.
Munnuza made an alliance with Duke Eudo of Aquitaine.
However, governor Abd ar-Rahman attacked Munnuza before he was ready, and besieging him, defeated him at Cerdanya. Because of the alliance with Munnuza, Abd ar-Rahman wanted to punish Eudo, and his punitive expedition ended in the Arab defeat at Poitiers. By the time of the governor Uqbaand possibly as early asthe city of Pamplona was occupied by a Berber garrison.
Ibn Musa lost control of Pamplona to a popular uprising. In Pamplona gave allegiance to the Franks, and in became an independent Kingdom of Pamplona.
These events put an end to the Berber garrison in Pamplona. Al-Hakam wrote that there was a major Berber revolt in north Africa in —, led by Masayra. The Chronicle of calls these rebels Arures, which Collins translates as 'heretics', arguing it is a reference to the Berber rebels' Ibadi or Khariji sympathies. Initially these attacks were unsuccessful, but then Uqba destroyed the rebels, secured all the crossing points to Spain, and then returned to his governorship.
Although Masayra was killed by his own followers, the revolt spread and the Berber rebels defeated three Arab armies. At this time, the Berber military colonies in Spain revolted. By this time, the Berbers controlled most of the north of the Iberian peninsula, except for the Ebro valley, and were menacing Toledo.
Ibn Qatan invited Balj and his Syrian troops, who were at that time in Ceuta, to cross to the Iberian peninsula to fight against the Berbers. The Berbers marched south in three columns, simultaneously attacking Toledo, Cordoba, and the ports on the Gibraltar Straits.
However, Ibn Qatan's sons defeated the army of Toledo, the governor's forces defeated the attack on Cordoba, and Balj defeated the attack on the straits.
After this, Balj seized power by marching on Cordoba and executing Ibn Qatan. In Africa, the Berbers acted under divided leadership. Their attack on Kairouan was defeated, and a new governor of Africa, Hanzala ibn Safwanproceeded to defeat the rebels in Africa and then to impose peace between Balj's troops and the existing Andalusi Arabs. Roger Collins argues that the Great Berber revolt facilitated the establishment of the Kingdom of Asturias and altered the demographics of the Berber population in the Iberian peninsula, specifically contributing to the Berber departure from the northwest of the peninsula.
However, due to the Berber revolt the Umayyad governors were forced to protect their southern flank and were unable to mount offenses against the Asturians. Some presence of Berbers in the northwest may have been maintained at first, but after the s there is no more mention of the northwestern Berbers in the sources.
When the Umayyad dynasty was overthrown ina grandson of Caliph HishamAbd ar-Rahmanescaped to north Africa. A persistent tradition states that this is because his mother was Berber. As the governor Ibn Habib was looking for him, he then fled to the more powerful Zanata Berber confederacy, who were enemies of Ibn Habib. Since the Zanata had been part of the initial invasion force of al-Andalus, and were still present in the Iberian peninsula, this gave Abd ar-Rahman a base of support in al-Andalus.
After Abd ar-Rahman crossed to Spain inhe declared himself the legitimate Umayyad ruler of al-Andalus. The governor, Yusufrefused to submit.
After losing an initial battle near Cordoba,  Yusuf fled to Meridawhere he raised a large Berber army. With this army, Yusuf marched on Seville, but was defeated by forces loyal to Abd ar-Rahman. Yusuf fled to Toledo, and was either killed on the way, or after reaching Toledo. All these family members of Yusuf, members of the Fihri tribe, were very effective at obtaining support from Berbers in their revolts against the Umayyad regime.
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Berbers provided much of Yusuf 's support in fighting against Abd ar-Rahman. In Zanata Berbers were involved in a Yemeni revolt in the area of Seville. Shaqya first killed the Umayyad governor of the fortress of Santaver near Roman Ercavicaand subsequently ravaged the surrounding district of Coria.
Abd ar-Rahman sent out armies to fight him in, andbut Shaqya avoided them by moving into the mountains. InShaqya defeated an Umayyad force and killed the governor of the fortress of Medellin by a ruse. He was besieged by Umayyads inbut the revolt near Seville forced the besieging troops to withdraw. In a Berber garrison in Coria declared allegiance to Shaqya, but Abd ar-Rahman retook the town and chased the Berbers into the mountains. In Shaqya resisted sieges to his two main fortresses at Santaver and Shebat'ran near Toledo.
In Shaqya was betrayed and killed by his own followers, who sent his head to Abd ar-Rahman. Roger Collins notes that both modern historians and ancient Arab authors have had a tendency to portray Shaqya as a fanatic followed by credulous fanatics, and to argue that he was either self-deluded or fraudulent in his claim of Fatimid descent.
He also compares these leaders to pre-Islamic leaders Kahina and Kosayla. InHisham succeeded Abd ar-Rahman as emir, but his brother Sulayman revolted. Sulayman fled to the Berber garrison of Valencia, where he held out for two years. Finally he came to terms with Hisham and went into exile intogether with other brothers of his who had rebelled with him. Abd Allah crossed over to Valencia first incalling on the allegiance of the same Berber garrison that sheltered Sulayman years earlier.
Sulayman was defeated in battle in and fled to the Berber stronghold in Meridabut was captured before reaching it and executed in Cordoba. Al-Hakam order Amrus ibn Yusuf to destroy the rebellion. Amrus was the commander of the Berbers in Talavera. Amrus negotiated in secret with the Banu Mahsa faction in Toledo, promising them the governorship if they betrayed ibn Hamir.
However, there was a feud between the Banu Mahsa and the Berbers of Talavera. The Berbers of Talavera killed all the Banu Mahsa. The Toledo rebellion was sufficiently weakened that Amrus was able to enter Toledo and convince its inhabitants to submit. Roger Collins argues that unassimilated Berber garrisons in al-Andalus engaged in local vendettas and feuds, such as the conflict with the Banu Mahsa.
Collins states that "the Berbers, despite being fellow Muslims, were despised by those who claimed Arab descent. Inthe Berber garrison of Tarragona massacred the inhabitants of the city.
Tarragona was uninhabited for seven years until the Frankish conquest of Barcelona led to its reoccupation. Inone of the leaders of the Toledo rebellion ofHashim al-Darrab, who had been kept under arrest in Cordoba, escaped, returned to Toledo, and started another rebellion.
Hashim gained control of Calatrava la Viejathen a major fortress town, until Hashim was killed in battle inbut his followers maintained the rebellion, and Berbers from Calatrava besieged Toledo in and The rebellion was finally ended inwhen the emir's brother al-Walid became governor of Toledo. Throughout the ninth century, the Berber garrisons were one of the main military supports of the Umayyad regime. However, they were also difficult to control, and by the end of the ninth century the Berber frontier garrisons disappear from the sources.
Collins says this might be because they migrated back to north Africa or gradually assimilated. A Berber leader named H'abiba led a rebellion around Algeciras in Little is known of this rebellion other than its occurrence, and that it may have had a religious inspiration. Berber groups were involved in the rebellion of Umar ibn Hafsun from to There he formed an alliance with the Banu Rifa' tribe of Berbers, who had a stronghold in Alhama.
He captured Jaen in New waves of Berber settlers arrived in al-Andalus in the 10th century, brought in as mercenaries by Abd ar-Rahman III to help him in his campaigns to recover Umayyad authority in areas that had thrown off allegiance to the Umayyads during the reigns of the previous emirs.
New frontier settlements were built for the Berber mercenaries who arrived in the s.Berber women's tattoos a dying tradition
Written sources state that some of Abd ar-Rahman's new Berber mercenaries were placed in Calatravawhich was refortified. It was a fortified town, had walls, and a separate fortress or alcazar. Two cemeteries have been discovered also. It was established in the s as a frontier town for Berbers, probably of the Nafza tribe.
It was abandoned soon after the Castilian occupation of Toledo in The Berber inhabitants took all their possessions with them. In the s, the Umayyad caliphate faced a challenge from the Fatimids in North Africa. The Fatimid caliphate was founded by Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah after his disciples gained a large following among the Kutama Berbers in what is today eastern Algeria and western Tunisia.
After taking the city of Kairouan and overthrowing the Aghlabids inthe Mahdi Ubayd Allah declared himself caliph, which represented a direct challenge to the Umayyad's own claim to the caliphate. To counter the threat, the Umayyads crossed the straits to take over Ceuta in and actively formed alliances with Berber confederacies such as the Zanata and the Awraba.
Rather than fighting each other directly, the competition of Fatimids and Umayyads played out as a competition for Berber allegiances.
In turn, this provided a motivation for the further Islamic conversion of Berbers, many of whom, particularly farther south away from the Mediterranean, were still Christian and pagan.
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With the help of his new mercenary forces, which were mainly composed of recent Berber arrivals, Abd ar-Rahman launched a series of attacks on parts of the Iberian peninsula that had fallen away from Umayyad allegiance. In the s he campaigned against the areas that rebelled under Umar ibn Hafsun and still refused to submit.
These he submitted in the s. He conquered Merida in —, Ceuta inand Toledo in Umayyad influence in western North Africa spread through diplomacy rather than conquest. These would declare loyalty to the Umayyad caliphate in opposition to the Fatimids. The Umayyads would send gifts including embroidered silk ceremonial cloaks.
During this time, mints in cities on the Moroccan coast Fes, Sijilmasah, Sfax, and al-Nakur occasionally issued coins with the names of Umayyad caliphs, showing the extent of Umayyad diplomatic influence.
When the Fatimids moved their capital to Egypt inthey left north Africa in charge of viceroys from the Zirid clan of Sanhaja Berbers, who were Fatimid loyalists and enemies of the Zanata. The Hammadids became independent inwith their capital at Qal'at Beni-Hammad. With the withdrawal of the Fatimids to Egypt, however, the rivalry with the Umayyads decreased. Ibn Abi Amir was treasurer of the household of the caliph's wife and children, director of the mint at Madinat al-Zahracommander of the Cordoba police, and qadi of the frontier.
However, general Ghalib ibn Abd ar-Rahman and Muhammad Ibn Abi Amir formed an alliance, and in they overthrew al-Mushafi and his sons and other family members, who had received offices. Al-Mushafi was imprisoned for five years before being killed, and his family was stripped of property and titles. InIbn Abi Amir fell out with his ally Ghalib, and a civil war began.
These armies fought several battles, in the last one of which Ghalib was killed, bringing the civil war to an end. Ibn Abi Amir then took on the name al-Mansur'the victorious', by which he is more commonly known. Having won the war, al-Mansur no longer needed his Berber ally Ibn Hamdun, who instead became a threat due to his substantial army. Ibn Hamdun was murdered inhaving been made drunk at a feast held in his honor, then murdered as he departed.
Employing large numbers of Berber and Saqaliba mercenaries, al-Mansur intitiated a series of highly successful attacks on the Christian portions of the peninsula. He was succeeded as hajib by his son, Abd al-Malik. InAbd al-Malik died and was succeeded as hajib by his half-brother, Abd ar-Rahman, known as Sanchuelo because his mother was Navarrese. Considerable resentment arose in Cordoba against the increasing numbers of Berbers brought from north Africa by al-Mansur and his children Abd al-Malik and Sanchuelo.
InSanchuelo had himself proclaimed Hisham II's successor, and then went on military campaign. However, while he was away a revolt took place. Sanchuelo's palace was sacked and his support fell away. As he marched back to Cordoba his own Berber mercenaries abandoned him. Having abandoned Sanchuelo, the Berbers who had formed his army turned to another ambitious Umayyad, Sulayman, whom they supported.
They obtained logistical support from Count Sancho Garcia of Castile. They then installed Sulayman as caliph, and based themselves in the Madinat al-Zahra to avoid friction with the local population. They defeated Sulayman and the Berber forces in a battle near Cordoba in To avoid being destroyed, the Berbers left Cordoba and fled towards Algeciras.
Al-Mahdi swore to exterminate the Berbers, and pursued them. However, he was defeated in battle near Marbella. With Wadih, he fled back to Cordoba while his Catalan allies went home.
The Berbers turned around and besieged Cordoba. Deciding that he was about to lose, Wadih overthrew al-Mahdi and sent his head to the Berbers, replacing him with Hisham II.
They methodically destroyed Cordoba's suburbs, pinning the inhabitants inside the old Roman walls and destroying the Madinat al-Zahra. Wadih's allies killed him, and the Cordoba garrison surrendered with the expectation of amnesty. However, "a massacre ensued in which the Berbers took revenge for many personal and collective injuries and permanently settled several feuds in the process.
Ibn Idhari said that the installation of Sulayman in was the moment when "the rule of the Berbers began in Cordoba and that of the Umayyads ended, after it had existed for two hundred and sixty eight years and forty-three days.
During the Taifa era, the petty kings came from a variety of ethnic groups; some—for instance the Zirid kings of Granada —were of Berber origin. The Taifa period ended when a Berber dynasty—the Moroccan Almoravids —took over al-Andalus; they were succeeded by the Almohad dynasty of Morocco, during which time al-Andalus flourished.
After the fall of Cordoba inthe Saqaliba fled from the city to secure their own fiefdoms. One group of Saqaliba seized Orihuela from its Berber garrison and took control of its entire region. After the fall of Cordoba, the Zirids took over Granada informing the Zirid kingdom of Granada.
Khayran then executed Abd ar-Rahman IV. Khayran's son, Zuhayr, also made war on the Zirid kingdom of Granada, but was killed in In Cordoba, conflicts continued between the Berber rulers and those of the citizenry who saw themselves as Arab. The Sanhaja departed from Cordoba at this time. The Hammudids claimed a family relation to the Idrisids, and thus traced their ancestry to the caliph Ali.
In they rebelled in Ceuta, claiming to be supporting the restoration of Hisham II. Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir declared himself caliph, a position he held for two years. For some years, Hammudids and Umayyads fought one another and the caliphate passed between them several times. Hammudids also fought among themselves.
Oct 26, - If you are interested in visiting our camp, you will find that you are being looked after by our wonderful Berber staff. But who are the Berber. Berbers, or Amazighs are an ethnic group of several nations indigenous mostly to North Africa . carried the mtDNA haplogroups U6, H, JT and V, which points to population continuity in the region dating from the Iberomaurusian realtorscommercial.como?: ?from ? 10 million to ? 12 million. The Berber Identity Movement and the Challenge to North African States. Submission Date: Novem Submitted berber dating culture. This period corresponds to.
The last Hammudid caliph reigned until The Hammudids were then expelled from Cordoba, where there was still a great deal of anti-Berber sentiment. The Hammudids remained in Malaga until expelled by the Zirids in During the taifa period, the Aftasid dynasty based in Badajoz controlled a large territory centered on the Guadiana River valley. According to Bernard Reilly,  during the taifa period genealogy continued to be an obsession of the upper classes in al-Andalus.
Most wanted to trace their lineage back to the Syrian and Yemeni Arabs who accompanied the invasion. In contrast, tracing descent from the Berbers who came with the same invasion "was to be stigmatized as of inferior birth.
Nevertheless, distinctions between Arab, Berber, and slave were not the stuff of serious politics either within or between the taifas. It was the individual family that was the unit of political activity. Their high visibility was due to their foundation of taifa dynasties rather than large numbers. In the power hierarchy, Berbers were situated between the Arabic aristocracy and the Muladi populace.
Ethnic rivalry was one of the most important factors driving Andalusi politics. During the taifa period, the Almoravid empire developed in northwest Africa. The core of the Almoravid empire was formed by the Lamtuna branch of the Sanhaja Berber.
At that time, the Almoravid leader Yahya ibn Ibrahim went on a hajj. On his way back he met Malikite preachers in Kairouanand invited them to his land. Malikite disciple Abd Allah ibn Yasin accepted the invitation. Traveling to Morocco, he established a military monastery or ribat where he trained a highly motivated and disciplined fighting force.
In andemploying these specially trained forces, Almoravid leader Yahya ibn Umar defeated the Kingdom of Ghana and the Zanata Berber. Forced to resolve a Sanhaja civil war, he left control of the Moroccan conquests to his brother, Yusuf ibn Tashufin.